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School of Divinity
Aspects of the High Middle Ages

New College

First Crusade 1096-1102

First Crusade Routes

Map showing the main routes followed by the first crusade

This map shows the main routes taken by those who joined the First Crusade. The appeal was made by Pope Urban II in November 1095 but crusaders did not set out until the following summer. One route went through Hungary crossing the Byzantine frontier at Belgrade then through the Balkans. The other route took crusaders down through Italy crossing by sea from Bari to Dyrrachion and then to Constantinople by land.

Asia Minor was controlled by Seljuk Turks but their capital Nicaea fell to the crusaders followed by Dorylaion on 1st July 1097. Edessa was occupied in March 1098, Antioch on 28th June 1098 and finally Jerusalem was captured on 15th July 1099. Following this success two further crusading expeditions set out for the Holy Land. Both, however, were destroyed by the Turks in the summer of 1101 ensuring that Anatolia remained in Turkish hands.

Crusader States Boundary

Map showing the approx boundary of the crusader states, shown as orange line

This map shows the area known as the Crusaders States, that is, the territory gained as a result of the first Crusade and which was occupied by the Latins from 1098 to 1291. The boundary shows the territory held in about the year 1140. In 1144 the County of Edessa fell and the Kingdom of Jerusalem followed in 1187 - though it was briefly recovered 1229-44. The last foothold, Acre, was lost in 1291.

Massacres of Jews

Map showing the cities where Jewish massacres took place, shown as black diamonds

This map shows the sites where there were major massacres of Jews associated with the First Crusade: Rouen, Trier, Metz, Cologne, Mainz, Worms, Prague and Bohemia.